1) For spasticity in upper and lower limbs:
- Botulinum toxin neurostimulator-controlled intramuscular injections;
- Phenol muscle motorpoint and neurolytic injections under neurostimulator control.
2) Pain procedures:
- Electromyography and nerve conduction studies
- Zygapophysial joint diagnostic injections under x-ray control – cervical, thoracic and lumbar;
- Zygapophysial joint intra-articular injections;
- Sacroiliac joint injections;
- Peripheral joint injections including Synvisc injections for arthritic joints;
- Lumbar and thoracic transforaminal epidural injections;
- Lumbar sympathetic injections for lower limb sympathetic blocks;
- Stellate ganglion injections;
- Full upper limb sympathetic blocks;
- Disc: provocation discography, percutaneous disc decompression
- Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy to cervical, thoracic and lumbar zygapophysial joints, sacroiliac joints and peripheral nerves.
All procedures where relevant are undertaken under x-ray imaging using a C-arm fluoroscope which delivers minimal radiation, and quite commonly as part of a routine consultation where indicated.
- Hospital admission:
- for some specialist pain relieving interventions e.g lignocaine and ketamine infusions;
- And surgical implantation of nerve stimulators, both spinal and peripheral.